In the Palaearctis, one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface. Physically, the Palearctis is the largest ecozone. It includes the terrestrial ecoregions of Europe, Asia north of the Himalayan foothills, northern Africa, and the northern and central parts of the Arabian Peninsula.
An organism that spends a significant portion of its life history attached to or within a single host organism which it ultimately kills (and often consumes) in the process. Thus they are similar to typical parasites except in the fate of the host. In a typical parasitic relationship, the parasite and host live side by side without lethal damage to the host.
Literally: stalk. Can be used to indicate the common stem of two veins (basal part before fork) or the vein that is formed when two veins running towards the wing margin merge, for example R4+5 and M1+2 in some families of the Calyptrata.
Using a second organism for transportation (like 'hitching a ride'). The adjective is phoretic. For example, the phoretic sphaerocerid fly Norrbomia frigipennis mates on scarabid dung beetles, follows them underground, and lays eggs in the collected dung.
The process where flowering plants are fertilised by the transfer of male pollen to the female stigma by animals, air or water currents. Diptera are very significant pollinators, often more so than Hymenoptera, but they are often named, only to family, incorrectly, or not at all.
Feeding on a range of food sources, for example, Diptera with an unspecialised diet (omnivorous). Polyphagous may be used to describe an herbivorous insect that feeds on a broad range of plant species, a predator that feeds on many species of prey, a parasite that feeds on a broad range of host species, or a species that has larvae that feed on different kinds of organic matter, both animal and plant, for example.